Author Archives: DN

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Garila 1507 3755kV motors

The first thing that needs to be mentioned about these motors is that they are supplied in a set of 5 so you have a spare, which is great if (like me), you crash a lot! The blue, red and black colour scheme is pretty cool, and they are supplied with matching blue prop nuts too.

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Law Enforcement Drones: Public Safety and First Responder Operations

As more and more consumers turn to drones to capture new aerial perspectives, law enforcement offices have been doing the same. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have been growing in popularity ever since drone manufacturers have made them extremely easy to use and available in a large range of sizes and performance. With the ability to be quickly deployed, capture high-quality video, and be equipped with thermal imaging cameras it is easy to see why law enforcement would want to use drones and get an upper hand on the scene.

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FPV Racing Drones: Recommended Parts, Kits and Components | 2019

We made a guide with the intention to be a resource for anyone who wants to start with FPV and drone racing. To be honest, it's not easy and it takes some time. There's a steep learning curve and it can feel a bit overwhelming at first, but once you dive in, prepare for an addiction because, there is no turning back

What is Drone Racing?

FPV Drone Racing is a sport in which pilots race RC drone’s / quadcopters (quads) through a series of obstacles, gaps and gates (standard gate size for quads using 5” propellers is 5’x5’). Video is live streamed from a camera on-board the craft to a video receiver on the ground. This is connected to a display, most commonly goggles, which are worn over the eyes to immerse the pilot fully into the on-board experience. This type of flying is called FPV (First Person View).

Racing quads are really fast, the fastest are capable of speeds of over 100MPH / 160KMH, however it is the acceleration and maneuverability that is truly phenomenal. A racing quad can accelerate from standstill to its maximum speed in under 2 seconds, and your rates in BetaFlight can be tuned to rotate a full 360 degrees on any axis, 3 or even 4 times per second! If a pilot were to actually be on board for this level of acceleration the ‘G’ forces would likely prove fatal to the human body!


FPV Freestyle 

FPV freestyle involves navigating the drone around obstacles, small openings, or tight corners. It's not about lap race but to show the art and beauty of controlling the drone in different environments and executing precise maneuvers. In freestyle competition, you can combine both LOS and FPV flying. You're expressing your technical and artistic proficiency while adding unique flare to your flying.

These days FPV freestyle competition often takes the actual FPV view into account, so even if your quad is doing the most amazing aerial acrobatics, if all your FPV camera sees is the sky, you will likely not be given great scores by the judges.

Again pilots who flip and roll at extreme speeds may be marked down because the FPV view is just a constant blur of movement. Freestyle has been called “The Aerial Ballet”, however some pilots, like Skitzo, are more like “Break Dancers”! I think a combination of smooth flying with confident, direct changes of direction, good use of altitude and points of explosive and well executed maneuverability are likely to get the best scores.

Mr.Steel from RotorRiot showing his skills while diving through the buildings with his Impulse RC Alien. 

Gab707 took the video with a GoPro Hero 4 Session mounted on a Strix Awk210, heading towards the peak of the mountain in  Hübschhorn Switzerland. Beautiful example of Long range FPV.

Drone racing kits and components

Ready to Fly Racing Drones

For RTF Drones we listed the required equipment for certain models that are ready to fly, you may have to purchase a transmitter, receiver and goggles separately . More detailed information is shown in overview for each drone.

RTF quad combo’s seem to be less common for larger racing quads these days. It seems that retailers are understanding that so many new pilots are recommended to use an FrSky Taranis QX7 over a FlySky i6 or i6X that the RTF combo’s which include the FlySky TX are not as attractive as they once were.


emax hawk 5

Top Performance

Emax Hawk 5

The Emax Hawk 5 might be the best BNF racing drone available. Emax did a superb job with this one. It's durable. Fast and nimble. It's even got a custom PID tune configured by pro racers just for it.


Beginner FPV Quad

Eachine Wizard X220

Excellent Ready to Fly racing quad for beginner. The kit has everything you need to start flying out of the box. We would recommend to buy a few extra batteries, preferably 4S, but you'll also need a new charger.

Considering this, the following is my recommendation for ready built quads. Note some of these may have a choice of RX available already fitted, others may require that you solder your own. Remember to select the correct RX option for your TX.

The first 3 in this list are all around the $150 dollar mark at $140, $150 and $160 respectively.



Great value for the money

The RealAcc Real5 215mm

The Real5 is quite a nice looking quad and pretty cheap for a 5” too. It comes pre-built with an F3 FC and 30A 4-in-1 ESC board. It has an 800TVL camera that outputs both PAL and NTSC, and the VTX has selectable power outputs of 25mW, 200mW and 600mW. The Real5 weighs in dry (without battery) at just under 340g, making it the heaviest of these 3. Note that with the low price the FC does not have OSD and there is no RX supplied either.



PNP Quadcopter Bundle

KingKong/LDARC 200GT

This 200mm PNP quad is really lightweight, it uses a 20mmx20mm stack, 20A 4-in-1 ESC and smaller 1806 motors to swing the 5040x3 props, but despite this the weight saved makes this quad really efficient, with possible flight times of over 10 mins! You could probably get even longer with a 2 blade 5040 or 5045 prop, I wouldn’t use a more aggressive pitch than this with these small motors though. The 200GT also comes with a RunCam micro Swift FPV camera, 7075 alu support structure and 4mm CF. The only downside I see with this one is that the arms are not replaceable, this however is one of the ways they have managed to keep it so light.


Fast-FPV-Drone-BFlight 210

Impressive Performance

BFlight 210

The Bflight 210 is a great looking quad with the most impressive performance in this price range at the moment. It is really fast, and maneuverable, and feels really locked in - straight out of the box. Designed and provided with the GemFan Flash 5152x3 props, these 2205 2300kV motors deliver great performance, especially when paired with the 4-in-1 30A BLHeli_S ESC running DShot 600 protocol. The BFlight 210 is also fitted as standard with the time honoured HS1177 FPV camera and a switchable 25-200mW VTX.

The last 2 quads of my Ready Built recommendation are a bit more expensive, but the components used are top notch.

Fly Fox Blue Fox 145

The Blue Fox 145 is a Micro running 3.1” (3140) props on ‘RcInPower’ 1506 4100kV motors, which have some of the highest thrust figures of any motor on 3” props. It comes stock with the RunCam Micro Swift 2 FPV camera and a great VTX which offers “pit mode” (0mW), 25mW, 100mW and 200mW power outputs.



Budget Micro Option

Fly Fox Blue Fox 145

It weighs in at 140g dry, so it is a bit on the heavy side for a 3”, but most of that will be down to those awesome motors. It also has a 3mm CF chassis to withstand crashes at the insane speeds this little guy is sure to reach! $200 might be a bit expensive for a 3”, but if you were to build it yourself, from the same components you’re looking at $150 for the motors, camera, FC and ESC, before you have an RX, VTX, frame and props, so it’s probably not as pricey as you might first think.

HolyBro Kopis 1

The Kopis 1 is another top class ready built quad, with all the latest bells and whistles. T-Motor Air 40 2205 2450kV motors, 32bit 30A BLHeli_32 ESC (DShot 1200 capable), RunCam Swift mini FPV camera, Kakute F4 AIO FC, Atlatl “serial” (configurable through TX) VTX with switchable power 15mW (pit mode), 25mW, 100mW, 200mW, 400mW and 600mW.


Ready-Built-Quad-HolyBro-Kopis 1

Budget Micro Option

HolyBro Kopis 1

5mm thick, twill weave, carbon fiber, one-piece frame. It is also capable of running 6S LiPo packs too. I think they made it pink so the wife doesn’t mind so much that you spent $300 on it! It is available PNF (without RX) or BNF with an FrSky XSR, they are only charging $11 extra for the RX which costs $35 separately So it’s worth buying the BNF if you are an FrSky user.

Best FPV racing drones are built from ground up

There are so many different models and components for First Person View Racing, that it’s really hard to separate them. We have split our recommendation into 4 categories (Beginner or First build, Micro build, Advanced and Expert)

Be patient, try to practice as much as you can, go over our preflight check-list and get a simulator as soon as you have a TX to practice with. Maximize the crashes in the simulator to minimize crashes in the field. In the end you want to have more flying time / less repairing time.

We always suggest to anyone who is interested in quadcopter racing, to buy the components, and assemble it yourself. This way, you’ll be familiar with the electronics, be more prepared diagnose problems and fix something when it breaks. Damage to your quad is an inevitability, we fly fast and crash hard.

Most repairs are minor, such as a disconnected wires, broken antennas, cracked FPV camera lens, etc. Remember the mantra “Build, Fly, Crash, Repeat” The more you “repeat” you will recognize and diagnose failures more quickly, and repairing them will soon become second nature.

best racing drones

Drone racing PARTS and components

Table with recommended parts. Each component is explained further below.



Micro 3" 




Martian II

Diatone 2018 GT M3

LSX5 230

Armattan Rooster

4x Motors

Racerstar BR2507s

RCInPower G1506

Gemfan GT2407



Racerstar RS30A v2

HGLRC F438 stack

X-Racer Quadrant

HolyBro Tekko32 35A

Flight Cotroller

Omnibus F4 AIO

HGLRC F438 stack

Omnibus F4 ProCorner

Matek Systems F411


Included with Frame

HGLRC F438 stack

Integrated with FC

Matek PDB


1200TVL Orange

RunCam Split mini

Foxeer HS1177

RunCam Split V2


Eachine VTX03

HGLRC F438 stack

Matek Systems VTX-HV

Integrated with PDB


Integrated dipole

Integrated dipole

Emax pagoda

Aomway 5.8Ghz


DAL 5040x3

iFlight Nazgul 3061x3

Gemfan Flash 5152x3

DALProp Cyclone

RC Transmitter

FlySky FS i6X

Turnigy Evolution

FrSky Taranis qx7

FrSky Taranis X9D


with transmitter

with transmitter




Eachine VR-007 Pro

Eachine EV800D

Eachine Goggles Two

Fatshark Dominator HD3


Turnigy Graphene

4S TGY Graphene

4S Dinogy Graphene 2.0

Tattu R-Line 1300mAh 95c


Charsoon DC-4S 3A

EV-Peak E3 35W

Imax B6-AC


We compiled the specifications of recommended mini quad configurations in this spreadsheet so you can compare them more closely.

      Legendary 'Crash Session' from PORKET

drone frames

As you may already know, to build a drone from scratch you’ll need a dozen different parts. Aside from the size of propeller the quad frame is usually one of the 1st components you will choose and it will determine some of your choices for other components too:

Martian II 220mm - Budget Option

Great for a beginner, it has a lot of space for a wide range of components, many 3D printable camera mounts for most of the popular HD action cameras, and the 4mm thick CF means that is should withstand the abuse a beginner will throw at it. Specs put it at 55g heavier than the LS-210 though, so this could affect flight times. Martian Build Log

Liam LS-210

One of the most inexpensive frames on the market, so if you’re on tight budget this would be good choice. Well documented spacious and easy to build. It weighs in at only 100g but this is mainly down to the 3mm thick CF (Carbon Fiber) bottom plate, we would recommend 4mm minimum for a quad swinging 5” props.

Diatone 2018 GT M3 - Micro Option

This is a great little frame, good looking with the 7075 Alu protection for the FPV camera and the stack. It also looks easier to build than your average 3” micro, considering the Alu cage rotates open to provide easy access to the components.

LSX5 230 - Advanced Option

This frame looks very similar to the GEPRC LSX5 (or LX5?) Leopard, I have chosen this one over the GEPRC because it has an optional 5mm or even 6mm CF bottom plate, compared to the 4mm of the GEPRC. This version has reduced the amount of material used for the FPV camera mount, I would guess, in an attempt to shed some of the additional weight of the thicker base plate.

Realacc X210 4mm

Also, good choice, a little bit more complicated to fit everything when compared to last two ones because it has less space. It comes with PDB though, so depending on your choice of components this could be of use.

iFlight RACER iX5 200mm

The iX5 has good quality carbon, it’s light and affordable too. This one also doesn’t have too much space, so it’s more complicated to assemble and squeeze your components in.

Armattan Rooster - Expert Option

Following the success of the its predecessor the Chameleon, the Rooster was possibly the most anticipated release in the history FPV miniquads. Despite the $95 price tag due to the lifetime warranty offered on Armattan Quads’ frames, and the titanium camera cage, its popularity means the Rooster is only intermittently in stock, even a few months after its release.

Drone Motors

Brushless motors give you the thrust to reach the high speed, in fact top speed measured is above 200MPH! #quadstardrones

Motors are categorized by a four digit number – ie: 2207. where as the “22” numbers are the stator width and “07” is the stator height. Essentially, the wider and taller the motor is, the larger the numbers are and the more torque it can produce.

The brushless motor is used in mini and micro drone applications, where high power outputs and efficiency are prioritized. 

Further reading:

Drone Motor Fundamentals - important things to consider when choosing quadcopter motor.

In general, prices go around from 10-25$ per motor, there are cheaper and more expensive exceptions however. The following are our recommendations:

4X Racerstar Racing Edition 2205 BR2205 2300KV - Budget Option

Entry level motors, cheap as it gets. All in all they are not that bad, and have enough power for beginner, there have been questions raised over the quality control though. The DYS Samguk range are also very cheap, and got great YouTube reviews from Stu at UAVFutures, but there have been questions raised over the QC of these too.

4X RacerStar Fire Edition - High Power Budget Option

The Fire Edition is a new range from Racerstar and is as yet untested. However they should provide noticeable torque improvement over the original BR2205. There are various sizes in the range from 22mm - 25mm with either 6mm or 7mm stator height. They have also updated the prop shaft to steel with a hollow core to improve durability. With any luck RacerStar have improved the QC with these motors, but that remains to be seen…

Dragonfly Hurricane 2207 - High Power Budget Option

These motors from FPVModel are my pick of the bunch! - Very well priced, lightweight and offer great performance. They are factory tested and balanced so quality control should be top notch. The innovative touch with the inclusion of an insulation pad, to stop the common newbie mistake of shorting the motor windings with a mounting screw that is too long, make these motors a great choice for the 1st time builder!

4X Emax RS2205-2300kv - Quality Budget Option

Emax RS2205 motors are tried and tested, they are a bit dated now, but should still provide solid and smooth performance and great quality for a reasonable price. The RS2205S are a bit more pricey, but claim to provide an additional 100g of thrust over the originals. (400g over 4 motors is not to be sniffed at!)

RC In Power G1506 - Micro Option

These little motors are capable of producing amazing thrust on 3”, over 500g (static thrust) per motor depending on the pitch of your prop! With these motors and a lightweight 145mm frame, obtaining jaw dropping thrust to weight ratios should not be that hard.

GemFan 2407 - Advanced Option

Considering the performance and popularity of GemFan props, I believe that these motors have undergone some serious testing to produce a motor to rival those at the top of the class. The 2407 size is pretty huge so you can expect some great torque and throttle responsiveness from these beasts, and the higher kV versions should work really well with the GemFan Flash 5152 and 5552 props. These will probably pull a lot of amps, especially with these aggressive props, so you should consider an ESC with a higher rated amperage.

Brotherhobby Returner R5 2207 - Expert Option

Brotherhobby, arguably, make some of the best motors on the market, and the Returner R5 2207 are some of the best looking motors available too (in my opinion, anyway). These have a slightly smaller diameter bell housing and as such will be over 5 grams lighter than the GemFan’s mentioned above, after trimming the wires to length.

BrotherHobby Avenger 2507 - Expert Option Alternative

Brotherhobby, arguably, make some of the best motors on the market, and the Returner R5 2207 are some of the best looking motors available too (in my opinion, anyway). These have a slightly smaller diameter bell housing and as such will be over 5 grams lighter than the GemFan’s mentioned above, after trimming the wires to length.

Drone ESC

ESC’s (Electronic Speed Controllers) translate signals from the FC to provide phased pulses of electrical current through the stator windings of the motor to control its rotational speed. ESC’s are available to purchase individually and more recently have become available as a 4-in-1 PCB. A 4-in-1 saves weight, and is convenient to build it into the stack, It also centralizes the mass of the quad which will improve responsiveness.

ESC’s can be prone to failure, so using individual ESC’s means you can swap one out if needed. ESC’s are rated with a nominal Amperage (ie. 20A) and a peak amperage (ie. 25A). Current is measured in Amperes (A), a 1300mAh LiPo (mAh = Mili Ampere per Hour) will provide 1.3A or 1300mA of current for 1 hour before it is completely discharged, remember do not use more than 80% of your LiPo’s rated mA capacity.

ESC’s range from around $6 to $20 per piece. When choosing an ESC, find one that can withstand the high current your motors draw. It used to be that anything more than a 20A ESC was overkill, but with the higher kV and greater torque produced by todays motors, it is time to upgrade the 20A ESC’s on your 5” racer! Most ESCs with a 30A nominal and 35A peak will withstand the currents that arise when flying an FPV drone. I have included the following because they are the cheapest set of 20A ESCs:

Racerstar RS20Ax4 4in1 

This is a combination of 4 ESCs in one. Excelent invested/gained ratio. They are reliable, easy to install, and are mounted on the same stack as the flight controller.

4x Racerstar RS30A V2 - Budget Option

These are the updated version 2 of the Racerstar 30A ESC. They run BLHeli_S firmware running DShot 600 protocol..

HGLRC F438 Stack - Micro Option

The ESC from the HGLRC F438 stack is supplied with a 4-in-1 ESC rated for 38A peak current which should be more than enough to deal with the super aggressive pros and heavy current draw from the recommended RCInPower 1506 motors.

X-Racer Quadrant BlHeli_32, DShot 1200 - Advanced Option

The Quadrant ESC’s from X-Racer are a great option for those who want the weight saving and centralized mass from a 4-in-1 ESC, but do not wish to sacrifice the practicality of individual ESC’s. These ESC’s are individual and can be mounted on the arms, but they can also come together and like a 4-in-1 ESC can be mounted in a 30.5mm x 30.5mm stack. On top of this they have a 32bit MCU, to run BLHeli_32 and DShot 1200, a max amp rating of 35A and telemetry capability.

Holybro Tekko32 35A - Expert Option

These 32bit ESC’s have more processing power which manufacturers and firmware developers have put to use by introducing ESC telemetry. They are also capable of running the current fastest digital ESC protocol - DShot 1200 and are safe for an input voltage of up to 6S (22.2v). Also available as a 4-in-1


More expensive and better ESCs, send’s more power to the engines than the Racerstar ESCs.

Flight Controller (FC)

Drone Flight Controller

The FC (Flight Controller) is the brain of your quad. All the movements we make on the sticks are processed by the FC, together with the data from the gyroscope, filter algorithms, and PID controller. The FC then calculates the thrust required from each motor to carry out the pilots instruction. The FC signals the ESC’s which regulates the rate of the pulses of current to drive the motor at the required speed.

As with other equipment, there is a large supply of FC’s on the market. FCs differ according to the processing speed of the main microcontroller. There are Flight Controllers that use: F1 (24Mhz), F3 (72Mhz), F4 (84MHz) and F7 (up to 216MHz) microcontrollers.

Flight Controller Recommendations

AIO Omnibus F4 FC with integrated OSD - Budget Option

This Omnibus board is popular due to the low price, well thought out component and solder pad placement. It has an integrated current sensor and OSD (On-Screen Display), and a 5v BEC that is capable of supplying 3A to power both your camera and VTX.

Omnibus F4 Pro Corner Flight Controller - Advanced Option

The F4 Pro Corner is a really well thought out Flight Controller. It has an integrated 6S capable PDB, a vibration insulated Gyro (choice of MPU6000 or ICM20608) for faster loop-times. There seems to be pads to receive individual ESC telemetry too. As soon as betaflight devs. get it operating! (Just kidding Andre!)

Previous FC Recommendatios

Top End Flight Controller

Note on Gyro’s : MPU6000 or ICM20608? The MPU6000 is the more common of these 2 gyro chips, it is accurate and reliable, but it is not capable of the 32kHz refresh rate you can get from the ICM20608. Using a 32kHz refresh rate can cause your quad to behave badly due to over sensitivity to vibration from the motors or unbalanced props. Even with vibration insulation on the gyro, you may find that you also have to soft mount motors and/or the stack. If you still have problems, try reducing refresh rate and looptime from 32Khz.

Power Distribution Board (PDB)

The PDB serves to distribute voltage across all components. It directs battery voltage that is transmitted to the ESCs which then continues to the motors, regulating the voltage level from 16.8V to 5V, power’s Flight Controller and Receiver, as well as the video transmitter (VTX) and the camera.

Using a separate PDB is not as crucial as it used to be. Many FC’s these days have an integrated PDB, even if your FC doesn’t you may well be able to find a 5v BEC (Battery Elimination Circuit) on your ESC’s &/or your VTX which could be able to power your FC, FPV camera and RX (receiver). Many components these days have a wide input voltage range and can be powered direct from the battery, using a “Low ESR Capacitor” is advised to filter electrical noise which can affect your FC and FPV feed.

There are models of PDBs that have only voltage regulation (5 / 12V) and dissipation, and there are more advanced models that have On Screen Display (OSD) showing usefull data on FPV goggles, as remaing power, mAh, battery voltage etc.​

Matek Systems PDB-XT60

It comes with XT-60 battery connector, easy to assemble.

Matek FC-HUB VTX - Expert Option

The Matek systems FC-HUB VTX combines a top quality PDB with Matek Systems fantastic quality 500mW HV VTX. The PDB is capable of receiving 6S voltage and supplying ESC’s with bursts of current up to 48A for 5 seconds.

Matek Mini Power Hub

Identical as the previous but without XT-60 connectors, it allows more freedom of assembly and positioning of components.

Realacc/Matek HUBOSD

Model with OSD. Other options are the same as the aforementioned PDBs

Drone racing kit

If you’ve been reading from beginning; we now went through parts that transmitt power to motors. In various offers there are available kits in combination of frame/motors/esc/fc/pdb

It can cheaper to buy a frame kit than to purchase all your hardware individually, but when buying a kit you will always make a sacrifice over one or 2 of your components. While a kit might have “just what you need”, it never has “exactly what you want”! Remember, Frame kits are often a way for suppliers to get rid of old stock, like outdated SimonK ESC’s.

Note: Stay away from SimonK ESC FW, it is no longer updated and is now obsolete.

One of such great combo options with balanced components 

3BR 211 - 215mm Kit

The Kit comes provided with a set of BBB 2206 2500kV motors and the GemFan Flash 5152 propellers the frame was designed for. You will need to fit your choice of FC, ESC, FPV camera, VTX and Receiver. Which is I think is nice, so you can choose to save some $$ or get high quality components depending on your budget. I think this frame and the motors that it is supplied with are pretty good, but they are not “Pro Quality” and the price reflects that.


Drone Transmitter

A transmitter (TX) is one of the most important components in the hobby as it will stay with you for a long time. High quality transmitter is good investment as you can use it for different projects and models (simulators, fixed wing planes, etc.).

We listed few of them that we find worth checking out. For details check our RC Transmitters guide to get deeper into radio control systems.

Modes, 1 or 2?

When purchasing a transmitter the “mode” the retailer refers to, is which stick is assigned to which channel. There are others, but mode 1 and mode 2 are most common. Mode 1 places throttle and roll on the right stick with pitch and yaw on the left. Mode 2 places the throttle and yaw controls on the left stick, with pitch and roll on the right. Most pilots (at least in the US) use Mode 2.

Due to this, most of the tutorials and guides you find online are using mode 2 as a reference. Mode selection is very personal, and due to the amount of online information advising me to, I bought a mode 2 transmitter. To this day, I believe my skills may have improved faster if I had actually purchased mode 1, because that was more similar to the way I would set up my controller for computer games.

Of course I might just be making excuses for why I’m not a great pilot! Anyway, unless I find someone with one that I can try, I’m not going to shell out for a new Mode 1 TX just yet...!

Note: the protocol that the transmitter uses to communicate with the receiver is different to the protocol that the receiver uses to communicate with the FC. So even though your FlySky RX might communicate with the FC using the same SBUS receiver protocol as an FrSky RX, the AFHDS / 2A transmitter protocol that your FlySky radio uses to communicate with the RX is different to the FrSky transmitter protocol, which what makes them incompatible.

One cheap solution is a FlySky or turnigy transmitter which comes with a receiver. These use flysky TX protocols AFHDS / AFHDS 2A and RX protocols PWM, PPM, iBUS/SBUS.

FlySky-FS-i6X - Budget Option

The FS-i6X is the updated version of the i6 and it has new firmware and hardware that allow it to work on IBUS and SBUS digital protocols as well as the older PPM and PWM. It’s ok for a beginner, but soon you will want more out of it. (There is user created firmware in development for the i6X so it will soon have a host of new features available, such as RSSI alarms, flight timers, telemetry etc. Its plastic and gimbals are not of high quality. To use a simulator you will need a separate cable in addition to the FirmWare update cable provided. FlySky users used to be more limited with receiver options but this is beginning to be addressed by 3rd party manufacturers See the new ‘Flit 10’ RX.

Turnigy Evolution + Turnigy and A6C receiver - Budget Micro Option

The evolution is purposely built for racing, it is stylish and sits comfortably in hand, imitating a playstation control pad. It has fair quality gimbals, is easy to carry around due to small dimensions, and the included case protects the sticks and screen from scratches, scuffs and grit. It can be used with a simulator very simply via usb cable.

The only downside to this otherwise brilliant TX is that is restricted to the flysky AFHDS 2A protocol, so it isn’t compatible with some of the micro receivers used by some of the Tiny Whoops we recommended earlier. There are micro FlySky RX that use AFHDS 2A, but I think on grounds of cost they are avoided by most of the brushed micro models.

If you can afford the extra $50 or so over the FlySky i6X, we strongly recommend purchasing the FrSky Taranis QX7

FrSky Taranis qx7 - Advanced Option

The QX7 is a big upgrade from flysky and turnigy radio solutions and we recommend it to everyone who is looking to get seriously into FPV. An FrSky radio is a must have, they have fantastic reliability of signal, simple plug and play modules for other protocols or frequencies. The operating system can also be updated with LUA scripts to change menus, welcome messages etc.

or his advanced version

FrSky Taranis X9D Plus - Expert Option

Great gimbals, build quality, reliable frsky protocol, option to program switches, great tx interface, customizable LUA scripts, and voice alerts come in handy while you have goggles on. Configurable alerts let the transmitter advise you that your battery is low or that radio signal (RSSI) is weak.

FrSky radio’s also have upgrade parts available such as more accurate and higher quality “Hall Effect” gimbals and a number of different modules to extend range or use different protocols, beware - multiprotocol modules usually have a limited range.


Drone Receiver

Choosing a receiver depends on the transmitter you use. There are a number of different manufacturers, and each use their own protocol that is not cross compatible. Make sure that when you buy a receiver or a ready built model with a receiver fitted, that it is compatible with your TX.

Most popular protocols:

  • FrSky - most reliable protocol - SBUS serial protocol
  • Spektrum - solid reliable, mostly used in the U.S - DSM/DSMX DSM2 protocols
  • FlySky/Turnigy - Cheapest Transmitters, SBUS & iBUS, serial protocols. (iBUS is actually faster than SBUS!)
  • Futaba - Original developer of the iBUS serial protocol now used by FlySky.

Despite both FlySky and FrSky using SBUS protocol, these RX and TX are not cross compatible.

FlySky protocol, is OK for a beginner, it’s cheap and relatively easy to use. Full featured receivers is where FlySky users are let down, but there are other manufacturers who are now designing for FlySky protocols, so the view from the cheap seats is improving! Also FlyPlus Firmware is now in development which will add a host of new features to the FlySky (iRangeX etc.) FS-i6X. Either way, we recommend FrSky radios such as the taranis QX7 and X9D because of superior build quality and protocol reliability.

FlySky/Turnigy Receivers

Turnigy iA6C

A good choice for FPV drone because of the sbus signal, it uses AFHDS 2A protocol, it is a little on the heavy side though

FlySky X6B

Also a good choice. The protocol is very much outdated now, but it is possible to connect this RX via PWM as well as the newer PPM and serial iBUS and SBUS. It uses AFHDS 2A protocol and has 30.5mm spaced mounting holes to easily add it to a stack..


This is a new 3rd party RX that uses the FlySky AFHDS 2A transmitter protocol and iBUS receiver protocol. It is one of the smallest telemetry RX available for FlySky on the market right now.

Eachine Minicube FlySky RX

The FlySky RX from the Eachine MiniCube is worth mentioning as it has a 20mmx20mm mounting pattern as well as a lost model buzzer integrated.

FrSky Receivers


The most popular receiver in the quad racing. Used by over 60-70% of pilots. It's small, robust and has a great range.


The XSR is also an excellent receiver, whose hardware components are identical to the X4RSB, but is even smaller and is therefore an ideal choice for ultra-fast drones.


The R-XSR is an even smaller version of the XSR, providing 16 channels over SBUS or CPPM. A full featured, smart port capable, telemetry RX that weighs only 1.5g, amazing!.

FrSky XM+

Model designed for micro drones, range up to approx. 300m. By dimensions it’s the smallest of the FrSky receivers available now.


drone propellers

Recommended frames in Chapter 1. are intended for 5 "propellers. It is also the most popular class among the FPV racers because on 4s (14.8v) batteries they have a great power to weight ratio, even with the added weight of a separate HD camera.

Propellers are distinguished by their “Length”, "Pitch" and the number of "blades" they have. These is displayed as a series of numbers, I have mentioned the GemFan Flash 5552x3 a number of times in this article so I will use that as an example. The first two digits represent the length in inches:


The second two digits represent the pitch of the blades. Imagine that 1 propeller blade continued on its incline plane to rotate a full 360 degrees around the hub. The number describing the pitch is the number of vertical inches that would be between the leading and trailing edge of the blade.


The third digit simply refers to how many blades the prop has.

X3 = 3 blade prop

Propeller choice depends on the motor and its characteristics. The speed of a motor is measured in kV. The simplest way to explain kV values (k= thousand RPM (Rotations Per Minute) V = at 1V “no load” ie. without a prop). Generally motor kV ratings for racing quads using 5” props range from 2000kV up to 2800KV, but there are exceptions. As the speed of rotation is dependent on the voltage applied to the motor we understand that a 6S (22.2V) LiPo will turn the motor faster than a 4S (14.8v).

As motor technology improves we see motors that are capable of withstanding greater and greater amounts of current through their windings without overheating and burning out. Due to this advancement manufacturers of propellers are making more and more aggressive props to take full advantage of the additional torque that modern motors are able to generate.

Note : Lower kV motors can spin larger, heavier, more aggressive props (ie the gemfan 5552x3) due to the higher torque they produce. Higher kV motors do not produce enough torque to swing such demanding props efficiently, therefore fewer blades and a less aggressive pitch should produce a better balance between thrust and efficiency.

iFlight Nazgul 5061

GemFan Flash 5152

For low kv motor's (2000-2400kv): Max. 4 blades, Max pitch 45


For high kw motor's (2400-2800kv): Max. 3 blades, Max pitch 40​

DALProp T5040V2 3-Blade

​KingKong 5040 5x4x3


Drone Batteries

Batteries differ according to voltage, capacity and C-rating. Battery voltage is denoted by cell number 2s, 3s, 4s etc. In FPV drone racing, mostly 4S batteries are used. 4S denotes 4 cells wired together in series, each with a nominal voltage of 3.7V totalling 14.8V. When the batteries are full, each one is charged up to 4.2V, or a total of 16.8V.

Drone batteries also have different capacities expressed in mAh. Racing quads generally use batteries with a capacity between 1000 and 2000mAh. Commonly used capacities are 1300mAh and 1500mAh. This tends to be the sweet spot of thrust to weight, flight time and maneuverability. C-rating (Discharge Rating) refers to how fast a LiPo battery can safely be discharged, discharging a battery too quickly will make it hot, and in extreme cases can lead to a LiPo fire. In practical terms - the amount of current that the battery can deliver to the motors at any 1 time.

eg. 4s battery capacity 1300MAh with C-rating 45C can safely deliver:


So when you consider that 1 of your BrotherHobby Avenger motors is going to be drawing as much as 40A, you realise that higher C rated batteries are necessary for today’s hardware.

The 1300mAh Tattu R-Line Batteries I recommended previously have a 95C discharge rate - if we plug that back into the formula we get

95 * 1.3 = 123.5A

You see why I recommend them for racing?

Note : Some battery manufacturers inflate their discharge rating statistics.

The battery prices range from $15 to $50 per piece for a 1300MAh 4s pack. Do yourself a favour and check out reviews before you buy cheap LiPo’s If you are a beginner expect about 3-5 minutes flight from a 1300mAh, and if your just learning acro don’t expect those 3-5 mins to be all in one go! With a 1500MAh LiPo you should get about 6-7 min, but you will feel the additional weight of the battery, your quad will be slower to respond, and it will also carry more inertia into a crash which could mean more damage.

When you get more confident you will use the throttle more comfortably and your flight times will fall to 2-3 min for the 1300 mAh battery. With a bit more experience your flying will be more smooth, and as you learn to use the power more efficiently and you may be able to gain back one of those minutes.

Indestructible Quads ‘Black Label’ 1300mAh 4S True 80C

These are great LiPo’s, affordable, reliable and Ke at ‘indestructible’ provides amazing customer service. He has a small range of LiPo’s specific to 120mm - 300mm racing or freestyle quads.

Turnigy Graphene 1500MAh 4s 65C

Turnigy have been producing decent quality batteries for a long time now. In addition the Graphene claims to have a higher energy density, builds internal resistance slower, and is less prone to voltage sag than the standard LiPo chemistry. The are a bit heavier though.

Tattu R-Line 1300mAh 95C

The choice of the professional! Tattu R-Line batteries are widely renowned for producing some of the best Drone Racing batteries in the business.

Tattu R-Line 1550mAh 4S 95C

The larger capacity of the markets most popular battery, for those who just don’t want to come down!

Battery Balance Charger/Discharger

battery balance charger

To power your batteries you're gonna need a charger. Least expensive one we found on the market, that charges 4S batteries:

EV-Peak E3 35W 3A - Budget Micro Option

Charsoon DC-4S - Budget Option

This simple little charger is cheap as chips and comes with an AC-DC power converter, maximum of 3A charge rate, but for the price it’s a bargain.

IMAX B6-AC - Advanced Option

The Imax comes with a lot of different connectors, and apart from LiPo batteries you can charge other types of battery chemistry (NiMH,LiFE etc.) This is a simple charger that works very well, there are clones available if you really must save a few $$, but the quality will likely not be as good as the real thing. When overcharging a battery can result in a fire, quality products are the best choice.

iSDT Q6 Plus 300w - Expert Option

The iSDT Q6 is one of the most popular chargers around, it’s a great quality unit with easy to use colour display and the 14A output make it really popular for many pilots to parallel charge multiple batteries.

FPV Equipment

When you build a drone composed of the above-mentioned components you have all the mechanical parts for flight, and you can now fly LOS (Line of Sight). It's a good thing to practice LOS flying if you're a beginner, every time you fly it build muscle memory, but even accomplished FPV pilots should practice their LOS skills once in a while in case of FPV equipment failure.

But what makes flying really exciting is First Person View (FPV). To complete the FPV system you will need:

  • Camera​
  • Video Transmitter with antenna (VTX)
  • FPV goggles / headset with video transmitter (VRX)

Many newer goggles use a system called “Receiver Diversity”, which uses 2 or more receiver boards, each with their own antenna. This system will automatically switch to the receiver that is receiving the best signal.

Note : Some cheaper goggles use 2 antennas with a single VRX, this system is far inferior and is called “Antenna Diversity”.


Drone Camera

The cameras come with 2 variations: those with CMOS sensor and CCD sensor. Higher quality cameras mostly use a CCD sensor that has less latency, faster adaptation to light change. CCD cameras are also more resistant to vibration and do not suffer from Jello as much as CMOS.

Cameras also come with different image ratios ie. 16:9 and 4:3. There are also different signal types ie. PAL and NTSC. These days it is common for most equipment to be compatible with either, so you should be able to change both your camera and your goggles from PAL to NTSC. It is only now becoming more common for cameras and goggles to able to switch between image formats.

4:3 is the older more square image, 16:9 is widescreen. However, the image sensor in most FPV cameras is a native 4:3 sensor, so you will see more of your surroundings using a 4:3 image ratio on your display.

Counter-intuitively, when switching to widescreen, you are actually trimming some of the top and the bottom off the image to fit your screen, so you see less.

Note : We recommend that you select goggles that are capable of displaying both NTSC and PAL signals, therefore you can use either type of camera. If your FPV display only operates with PAL or NTSC, but not both, then all the FPV cameras you purchase must operate on the same protocol.

1200TVL CMOS FPV Camera

It is not the cheapest CMOS camera, but the dimensions match the most popular HS1177 camera so it will fit most integrated FPV Camera mounts. It also has its own mount using the same dimensions as the original too.

Foxeer HS1177

The original FPV camera, sort of! The HS1177 was one of the most popular FPV cameras, before manufacturers started adding features such as WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) to cater specifically for FPV.

RunCam Split Mini (micro option)

The RunCam split was a game changer when it was first launched because it combined the function of FPV camera and HD camera in one. No more dragging that heavy lump of GoPro around, Hooray! The Runcam Split mini is the smaller brother of the original, it has 2 small 20mmx20mm mounting PCB’s that can be added to the stack of a micro, these act as the HD DVR, while still maintaining a low latency, good quality, FPV image. The larger split fits a 30.5mmx30.5mm stack and has one or 2 more features, it is also the same price, so really buy whichever suits your build.

Video Transmitter VTX

Video Transmitter

A VTX is the transmitter for your video feed, transmitting the analog video signal received from the FPV camera to the video receiver. VTX are available with various differences. “Channels” and “Bands” refer to the different frequencies encompassed by 5.8gHz, often there are 5 bands and 8 channels on each band. Most VTX have 40 or so different channels, but some have 70 or more! RaceBand has been set up to evenly space signals so racers can all use the same band and know that there will be minimal signal “bleeding over” causing interference to others.

EWRF e7082C

This micro VTX weighs in at 2.1 grams including the dipole antenna! It has switchable output power OFF/25mW/100mW/200mW, and transmits on 48 channels, It also has a wide input voltage range from 5v - 24v, so you can power it direct from your LiPo or a VBAT pad on your PDB/FC.

Eachine TX526

Eachine VTX03

This little VTX from Eachine is great, reliable with selectable power output. Only runs on a 1S battery or dedicated 5v!


Is a great combination of PDB and VTX, this ensures that the PDB has been provided with ample filtration of the power supplied to the FPV camera and VTX so there is no interference introduced from electrical noise generated by the motors.

Note : Countries have different regulations restricting various specific frequencies encompassed by 5.8gHz, also higher power outputs on 5.8gHz have restrictions and/or require a HAM radio licence. Check your local regulations, and remain on the good side of law! Legality is also not the only issue, there is quite a lot of bad press related to ‘drones’ at the moment. The world is still working to understand the best way to regulate drone usage to ensure the safety of the general population. Any blatant disregard for regulations will reflect badly on the entire hobby and could lead to harsh blanket restrictions that will affect us all.


Male is screw thread inside, female is screw thread outside. SMA Male is needle, and SMA Female is hole. RP-SMA are opposite.

Remember that polarized antennas only work with the same direction of polarization. So if you have an RHCP (Right Hand Circular Polarized) antenna on your quad, you must have an RHCP antenna on your VRX too.

Aomway 5.8Ghz 4 Leaf RHCP

Best buy antenna, 1 pc is $ 6.5. Resistant to shock and excellent signal. Be careful when selecting a connector.

Rubbered FPV Antenna

The popular antenna among FPV racers due to their small dimensions and endurance. Also, be aware of the choice and layout of the L and W type connectors

Emax Pagoda Antenna

Pagoda antennas have become popular recently as they are easy and cheap to build as they can be printed onto a PCB and simply assembled around a piece of coaxial cable. Check out this article explaining how you can make 160 pagoda antennas for not much more than $40!

Goggles Headset and Receivers

Drone Goggles

There are a lot of options and price ranges from $ 45 to $ 500 to $ 600

Check our indepth Guide on FPV Goggles and Receivers!

Eachine VR-007 Pro

A cheap pair of goggles to get you started flying FPV, but it has a low resolution of 480x272, so the picture is pixelated. There is no way to adjust the proximity of the screen so it could be difficult to get the image to focus. Supplied with a rod antenna, so we recommend you buy a better antenna separately (connector is RP-SMA).

Eachine Goggles Two

These goggles from Eachine are some of the higher end box goggles offering a 1920x1080px HD screen, HDMI input and receiver diversity. Supplied with a directional patch antenna and a mushroom antenna.

The best goggles (full immersion, convenience, DVR shooting, comfort, etc.), and with quality comes price

Fatshark Dominator V3

These goggles from Eachine are some of the higher end box goggles offering a 1920x1080px HD screen, HDMI input and receiver diversity. Supplied with a directional patch antenna and a mushroom antenna.

Fatshark Dominator HD3

The HD3 goggles are the latest model from FatShark and come with an integrated DVR as well as HDMI input.

Headset Quanum DIY FPV Goggle V2 Pro

Eachine RC832 FPV VRX

Turnigy 1500mAh Bat

Somewhat more expensive and verified option is a comes in combo.  The disadvantage of this combo is that the headset is bulky, so you have to wear a special case just for it. Unlike the Eachine VR-007, it has adjustable proximity to the screen and 800x480 resolution

Eachine VR D2 Pro

The advantages are that it comes with a diversity receiver (receives a 2-signal), has a DVR recorder, so it captures video on SD card, 800x480 screen resolution, close proximity, auto scan video channel.

​In addition to your goggles, you will also need a receiver that does not come with them in the package​

La Forge v2 Diversity Combo

Furious True-D v3 

This new offering of diversity module from Eachine is really well priced and doesn’t skimp on features.

Eachine Pro 58 

Somewhat cheaper options

Realacc RX5805 Pro

Realacc RX5807 Pro

Helpfull Tools and Equipment 

Soldering Station

Soldering Station with Adjustable Heat Range 

If you want to build your own drone, and to service it later, you need a solid soldering station. You can use a cheap iron, but you will need one that is a minimum 40W. You will also need very fine tips for the scale we are working on, fine tips tend to oxidize quickly, so make sure you clean the tip every time you use it.

soldering station

Best buy, at this price it has no competition. It has temperature setting, stand and sponge. Don’t forget you will also need some good quality lead solder, a solder sucker, and flux. Helping hands are also err, helpful, handy? A quick tip, if you don’t have helping hands, wrap a rubber band around the handle of some long/needle nose pliers, easy!

When you assemble your first quad, you might find that some small piece (such as a buzzer) has been overlooked. If you can’t find what you need locally, and it’s going to take 3 weeks for that $2 part to arrive from China, go past your local flying field and see if you can’t someone who can help, anyone who has been flying for long will probably have quite a few spares! Generally people who fly quads are addicts, addicts love talking about what they are addicted to, especially to another prospective addict!!!

Tools that will help you make and service your drone:

Electrical or insulation tape

Zip or Cable ties

Scalpel or craft knife

Imbus / hex or allen keys

Polyolefin H-type​ Tubing Tube

Silicone Wire

Velcro Tape

​XT60 Connectors

XT30 Connectors for micro’s

Hex Spacers Screw Nut Assortment Kit​

M3 Carbon Steel Allen Bolt​

Separate motor's, ESC's ... :)​

Micro FPV Drones - most popular known as Tiny Whoop

A Tiny Whoop is a quadcopter that is based on the Blade Inductrix, but with an added FPV camera. These tiny micro drones use very small brushed motors and are ideal for indoor flying. Compared with larger racing quads they are easier to fly, due to their low mass they carry very little inertia into a crash and are therefore resilient, and inexpensive to start flying.

A Tiny Whoop is great choice for entering in the world of drones, the design of the ‘ducts’ provide great protection for the props so you can keep flying even when bumping into obstacles. They are not designed for outdoor flying, because they are so light, even a little breeze can put them off trajectory.

Also any open space swamps any sensation of speed on such a small craft, so while flying indoors is really exciting, flying outdoors feels a bit slow. If you want to explore further, we made extensive guide on micro fpv quadcopters.

Some popular models in this category


Beginner Micro Quad

Eachine e010

This model comes without a camera, it’s really good choice for your first drone or a gift. You can practice LOS (line of sight) orientation flying. The package includes a very small transmitter, battery and a charger - so it’s ready to fly out of the box. 

Note: the E010 is only able to fly in a stabilized flight mode, flying without auto stabilization is the only way to race or fly freestyle.



Beginner Micro FPV Quad

Eachine e010c

This second Eachine micro is the FPV version of the same drone, and it’s a good choice for your first drone. The package does include transmitter but not goggles, and you are required to fit the camera yourself.

Note: You will need to ensure that the version you select has the compatible RX for your TX. The FlySky RX option will only work using the original AFHDS system, so TX such as the FlySky i6S which is only able to operate on the newer AFHDS 2A protocol will not be compatible.


Great value for the money

Eachine e010s

This is the best bang for buck whoop available in my opinion. This one has an SPRacingF3 based (Brushed) Flight Controller that can can be configured through BetaFlight and it also has an improved battery (higher capacity and discharge rate).


Tiny Whoop Roots

Inductrix FPV

The Blade Inductrix FPV has been designed in response to the global craze of Tiny Whoop micro FPV drones. Basicly you pull the original inductrix apart to add an FPV Camera. With the canopy this looks much more like a finished product than the E010 versions. Starting out with a 'Tiny Whoop' you have everything you need for a real FPV experience.



Budget Micro Option

FullSpeed Leader 120

The Leader 120 is a great little micro, it comes supplies with a 2S 500mAh battery, but no RX, it has 1104 brushless motors swinging 2.5” props. The 20A esc is running DShot 600 and the F3 FC has an integrated OSD. You should be able to find a coupon to get this for under $100 too, which is a fantastic price for something that flies this well.

Usefull website's and channel's

oscarliang.com - indepth resource on FPV

Joshua Bardwell - Great YouTube channel with extremely detailed information on everything multi-rotor.

RCModelReviews - Youtube channel for no nonsense reviews and information on a wider range of RC aircraft.

AndyRC - YouTube channel mainly focussed on ready built model reviews, detailed BetaFlight setup of each model is a great touch for someone looking at a specific model.

miniquadtestbench.com - test's of ESC's and motors

EngineerX - YouTube channel focussing on motor thrust tests

​UAVfutures - excelent youtube channel for entering FPV experience

Rotor Riotone the most popular channels on FPV

Flite Testfrom Drones, to Fixed Wing RC, to Full Scale Flight

FPV Academy - beginners guide to FPV


What is the difference between RTF, BNF and ARF models?​

RTF stands for 'Ready to fly', it means you can fly your drone out of the box. Charge the batteries, bind the transmitter and you're ready to go. 

BNF stands for 'Bind-N-Fly'. You need to have your own transmitter or purchase the one going with BNF model receiver. You need to check the details on each model.

ARF stands for 'Almost Ready to Fly'. Model needs additional parts/equipment to assemble functional drone. Parts needed can include batteries, motor's, servo's etc. 

​Before you fly

Check your local rules, laws and regulations. Assess yourself (are you in a condition to fly), observe your surroundings, make sure there are no people or property that you may injure or damage. Take some time to inspect your gear before you take off, crashing because you failed to miss something obvious is really annoying, and can end up costing you more in the long run. Also check out our Pre-Flight Checklist.

Practice on simulators

There are many simulators for FPV flying. We definitely recommend practicing a lot, it will help you develop muscle memory using the sticks. Sims are great to allow you to practice without fear of crashing your quad. More crashes in a simulator should mean fewer crashes and less damage to your quad.

Acro Mode

Acro mode is the only way to fly, using a stabilized flight modes like Horizon or Angle mode are easier to start with, but you will soon begin to feel limited by it. Stabilized modes will also teach you bad flying habits that will be hard to shake when you graduate to Acro.

How fast are FPV Racing Drones?

Many racing quads these days are capable of phenomenal speed, even cheaper ready built craft are becoming blazingly fast. However, how fast your drone feels when you fly FPV, is actually less to do with the hardware that you are using and more to do with camera angle. A quad needs to tilt forward to move forward, the further forward you tilt, the more thrust you will need to apply to stop losing altitude, and the faster you will go.

When flying FPV you need to tilt your camera upwards so that you are not looking at the ground when flying fast. The further up you tilt your camera, the faster your quad will go when the camera view is level with the horizon. After adjusting your camera angle you will find your throttle control is affected, you will now need more throttle to maintain altitude with the camera level with the horizon. Increasing your “Throttle Mid” and adjusting “Throttle Expo” can help to retain the throttle levels that you are used to. 

What are “Cloned” products

Cloned products are components that have been copied by manufacturers other than those who developed the product. While I think that cloned products are necessary for price competition, and to provide those with a small budget to still have access to flying FPV. However you must be aware that when you buy a cloned product none of your money is going to the people who actually innovate, develop and improve the hobby. So if you have already built a quad, try to include as many legitimate parts as you can reasonably afford in your next build.

Affiliate Links

Affiliate links are links to products that will generate some commission for the person who has provided the link. Some people have a strong objection to affiliate links but they do not increase the cost to the customer. In fact using affiliate links is a great way to show your support for the people who spend the time to create content to help newcomers to the hobby!

Quadcopter Preflight Checklist & Tips – And Why it is Important

I have been inspired to write this preflight checklist because I am currently grounded after I failed to properly check over my newest micro quad, which annoyingly fell out of the sky 2 minutes into its maiden flight! I had done a few LOS (line of sight) high throttle punches (not full throttle though) to get a feel for the power, with no ill effects. Then I put my goggles on for the rest of my 1st pack, did a powerloop and on applying maximum throttle to arrest the descent and test out the speed, I think I got an oscillation which caused one of my motors to throw a bell housing.

Continue reading

Drone Transmitter and Receiver – Radio Control System Guide

A radio control system is made up of two elements, the transmitter you hold in your hands and the receiver you put inside your drone. Dramatically simplifying things here, your drone transmitter will read your stick inputs and send them through the air to your receiver in near real time. Once the receiver has this information it passes it on to your drones flight controller which makes the drone move accordingly. A radio will have four separate channels for each direction on the sticks along with some extra ones for any auxiliary switches it may have.

Frequency and Channels

Thankfully frequency and channel wise radio controls are a lot smarter than their FPV counter parts and are much easier to manage. Video transmitters and receivers for example both require setting to the correct channel along with diligent channel management every time you fly. A Radio Controller however simply needs to bind or pair with a receiver when it's first setup.

From then on it will always link and hop over various frequencies in the 2.4Ghz band to ensure a solid link with theoretically hundreds of pilots operating at the same time.

Range Technology

The limit of range is normally where the receiver can no longer clearly hear what the transmitter telling it and typically falls in the 1km range in normal conditions. Imagine trying to talk to someone across a field The range of your radio link will be dependent on a few factors:

  1. The output power of your transmitter - Many run just below the legal maximum to be compliant with international standards.
  2. The sensitivity of the Receiver - A more sensitive receiver is like having better hearing, the signal will travel further however it may pickup more noise in certain conditions
  3. The quality of your antennas at both ends - Antennas could be an entire article on their own but basically a larger antenna will send and receive a better signal. Often optimising your antenna placement will make a huge difference to the performance to the system.

Although typical radio systems use the 2.4Ghz band, specialist long range systems such as the TBS Crossfire can run on much lower frequencies which are able to travel much further at the same power.

Options and Recommendations

Best Cheap Drone Transmitter

For Beginners

Recommended Beginner Transmitter

FlySky FS-i6

FlySky FS-i6 is a excelent entry level 6-channel telemetry 2.4ghz transmitter. Great deal for the money. For $50 this Tx is packed with features and channels. Lots of receiver options are nice for various applications.

This is one of the cheapest remote currently available and for the price it is surprisingly solid. It can use a fast iBus protocol, features four configurable switches and is simple to operate. The range is reasonable but it lacks telemetry and defaults with only six channels. This remote requires 4xAA batteries to run which could get expensive. A lot of this remotes shortcomings can be easily fixed by some simple mods. Overall you can't fault this radio for the price point however if you stick with the hobby over a year you will most likely of reached it's limit be looking for a next level upgrade.

Best RC Transmitter for Beginners

For Beginners

Recommended Beginner Transmitter

Turnigy Evolution Digital

Turnigy Evolution is great low priced option, and the build quality feels solid. Looking more like a console controller than an rc transmitter. At around $80+ shipped, you get a good, portable, SBUS compatible Tx with up to 8 channels. 

Feature wise this radio is very similar to i6, (FlySky and Turnigy are the same brand). What’s special about this remote is that it has a feel more like an Xbox or Playstation controller and massively appeals to pilots who have come from a gaming background. If this fits the bill for you the unique form factor alone may justify this option. The radio only features two switches making it simple to use and it does have a few nicer feature such as a touch screen and coloured LEDs under the gimbals.

Best Budget Drone Transmitter

Best Budget Tx

Best Budget Drone Transmitter

FrSky 2.4G ACCST Taranis Q X7

This radio has been manufactured to meet the needs of fpv pilots as well as cut back on the overall cost, giving the everyday FPV Pilot what they want. Enough features to do what you want all the while ensuring a price point that can't be beat.

This radio is the slightly cheaper little brother of the Taranis X9D. For those of you unaware the X9D is the most popular radio in the mini quad world and used by a vast majority of pro pilots. This radio features the highly programmable Open TX, reasonable quality hardware and telemetry at a decent price. The QX7 maintains these core values but reduces cost slightly by removing a few switches, reducing the screen size and swapping the chargeable battery for an AA option. The design is more modern than the X9D and the relatively low price point makes this one of the most popular radios for both new and seasoned pilots this year. Ask on any forum and this will likely be your recommendation.

Best Value RC Transmitter

Best Value

Best Drone Transmitter - Our Pick

Taranis X9D+ SE

The Special Edition is a sprinkle of candy on top of an already tried and tested recipe. You get the Taranis X9D Plus, Plus a well designed shell, Plus the upgraded M9 hall-effect sensor gimbals, Plus improved switches, Plus cnc aluminum gimbal sticks.

Refined after many years the X9D+ SE is a special edition of the X9D+ with the majority of popular mods ready out of the box. The remote features M9 hall effect gimbals, an SMA antenna connector allowing you to use a higher gain antenna and a choice of some cool hydro dip colour options. This remote is probably the gold standard for mini quad pilots at the moment and is a great choice if you could see yourself applying these mods to your own radio in the future.

High End Drone Transmitter

Our Pick

Best Drone Transmitter - Our Pick

FrSky X10

The X10S is definitely the top of the line TX from FrSky, the build quality justifies the high price. We love this radio, but  just can’t decide if all the advantages outweighs the downsides. The radio is bigger than the X7D and X9D, but it doesn’t feel too heavy to hold.

This is the high end king of remotes, everything on this remote is of much higher quality ie. Metal parts instead of plastic. It features a huge number of switched and a large full colour display for you to tweak things with. I heard it quoted from an owner that despite the price you will love it however you would probably just as happy if you had an X9D+ and some extra cash. This level of remote is typically used for aeroplane models worth thousands that demand more features such as flaps, landing gears etc.

Comparability and Communication Protocols

Different radios speak their own languages to talk their receivers with some being faster and others being more reliable or even smaller/cheaper. This means that you must use a receiver that is compatible with your transmitter which will most likely be made by the same company.

Once the receiver has the signal it needs to communicate it to the flight controller. Different radios have different protocols for this and it is important to make sure that your flight controller and software supports it. The speed of this communication is important as it could introduce a delay into your system if too slow

Some standard protocols include

PWM - This is your classic analogue signal with one separate wire for each channel. This is now slow and outraged and should be avoided if possible

PPM - This is a slightly improved version of PWM where all the channels are sent over one wire as a series of timed pulses. This is quicker than PWM however is still not the best option.

Digital Protocols (SBUS, IBUS, DSM2/X) - Instead of relying on the timings of different pulse widths digital signals send numbers in ones and zeros which gives perfect accuracy along with even quicker response times.

For the speed and precision required to fly a mini quad you should always try to use a digital protocol with the variant being dependent on your radios manufacturer.

Choosing a Radio

With all this in mind lets take a look at what you should consider when choosing a radio and receiver combo whilst comparing some of the options out there.


If you have looked at some radios online you may of noticed that many give you an option to choose a different mode (eg Mode 1,2,3 or 4). These modes represent which stick does what for example which stick is the throttle.

The most common mode for mini quad pilots is mode 2 with the throttle on the left and I would suggest that you stick with this unless you have prior experience with other modes.

Once you adapt to a particular mode it will be challenging for your muscles and brain to switch! If you do go for a more exotic mode don't worry, it's preference for you and won't affect anything else. Many radios allow you to open up the gimbals and switch modes at your leisure.


The gimbals are the sticks that you use to control your mini quad. For mode two pilots you will have one on the left controlling throttle and yaw leaving pitch and roll to the right hand gimbal.

Good gimbals can be adjusted for size, tension and can have customisable stick ends. Some gimbals have better quality sensors such as hall sensors.

These rely on magnets instead of a brushed joint which give a much smoother feel and more precise flight experience.

Pinch or Thumbs?


The gimbals on a transmitter are much longer than an Xbox or Playstation controller and there is no right or wrong way to hold them.

Typical options include pinching the sticks between your index finger or thumb or by just using your thumb on it's own. In general whatever radio you choose you should read some reviews to check if they are pinch or thumb friendly.

Thumbers typically want shorter sticks and a narrower radio so that they can grip the back.

A pincher will want longer travel but will have to beware of any potential switches they could knock by accident. They may also require a neck strap.



Transmitters don't just have gimbals, they typically have an array of switches you can use for arming and changing flight modes etc.

Switches come in two or three position forms as well as sliders however as mini quad pilots we don't really need too many compared with aircraft flyers or our photography friends.

I would suggest having a radio with four configurable switches will cover everything you could ever need.

Transmitter Channels

Speaking of switches each one will require it's own channel and the gimbals require two (each one for each direction). That means a six channel radio will only let you use the gimbals and two switches even if it has more. Higher end radios will give you up to 16 channels which is more than you can ever need. If you are planning anything special make sure you have enough channels free to make it all possible.


So far we have covered how the radio talks to the quad but some quads can actually talk back relaying important information such as battery voltage and signal strength. This information can either be displayed on a screen or read out by audibly by the remote to warn you when to land or when you are out of range. Having this read out audibly to you is great as you can focus on flying and won't miss any warnings which could cause you to crash or lose a quad.


The more intelligent transmitters are extremely powerful allowing your radio to whatever you imagine. Any radio running Open Tx is highly programmable with logical switches and special functions. Here's a few examples of what can be achieved besides playing snake on the radio:

> Want to put your own splash screen and run custom sound effects? Easy
> Want your radio to register how long your quad is inverted for and count it out for you? Sure
> Use your RF signal to track laps? No Problem

> Use Telemetry to speak to your flight controller and adjust the PIDs and filters in flight? Yup

If you are looking for something that really can do anything and are willing to put the time in you can't go wrong here!

Module Bay

Many radios come with an external module bay which allows you to place a large array of standard RC sized modules in a completely different radio.

Multiprotocol modules are also available which allow one radio to control nearly everything including toy drones with their own remotes.

Battery Life

High end radios will have built in Li-ion batteries with a built in charging circuit allowing you to charge your radio with a simple DC jack. These typically will last for days before they need charging and is most peoples preferred option.

The cheaper radios on the other hand may not come with batteries at all and run on AA batteries. This is something worth considering when buying a budget radio is it may cost you more than you'd expect in the long run.

The only advantage to this type of battery is that they are readily available and can be swapped with little down time. In the middle you category of radios that can run off lipo batteries but they will require you to charge them separately.

On the plus side you get the long battery life at a low cost however you also have to source, charge and manage a lipo yourself. Some radios may also come with NiMH batteries which will not last as long.

Mod Options


Talking about batteries brings us onto mods nicely. If you were to go to a race or just a meetup for experienced pilots you may notice that none of them are running stock transmitters. Many users in the FPV community mod their transmitters to meet their specific requirements weather that be functionally or aesthetically.

My personal radio has a slot for 18650 Li-ion batteries, upgraded gimbals, larger stick ends and a aesthetic touch ups to the switches and antennas.

The basic FlySky i6 can be modified to have 10 channel IBUS with even a voltage alarm with some basic solder skills.

Many common mods include:

Antenna mods to increase range
Battery mods to increase life or improve charging
Switch and Gimbal mods to improve the feel
Aesthetic mods such as paint or hydro dipping to give a custom look
Module mods to support alternative protocols
Grips/stands for support
Software mods for added functionality

Final Recommendation

As your radio is another component you can't crash (unless you drop it!) I would suggest spending a reasonable amount of money on one. Features like telemetry could literally make the difference between losing a quad or draining the battery too far which could save you a small fortune. Typically pilots use a remote for years where as new quad could be completely destroyed after a few months.

If budget really is a factor then you do still have some solid options and they will in no way stop you from having a great FPV experience! If you do choose to upgrade in the future bear in mind that you will have to change all of your receivers which could cost you a small fortune. 

Contributor: Ashley Norman aka Speed Sloth